1764 - First medical faculty was opened in the Moscow University.

1798 - First medical surgery academies were founded in Moscow and Sanct-Peteresburg.

1803 - Petrov V.V. - Prof. of Physics at Sanct-Petersburg medico-surgery academy described the phenomenon of halvnonarcosis of fishes.

1805 - Mukhin E.O. published the first Russian monograph dedicated to problems of resuscitation of patients after hanging and drowning .As a basic method of treatment the author proposed to insuflate an air through the throat by using bellows and combining mechanical ventilation with periodic pressure in epigasric region. Actually it was the first trial of transdiaphragmatic heart massage .

1847 ( 7th February) - First operation under ether narcosis was performed in Russia by Prof. F.I. Inozemtsev ( Moscow Universiry).

1847 ( 14th February) - Pirogov N.I. performed the second operation under ether narcosis.

1847 - N.V. Maklakov published the first russian monograph on narcosis - "Usage of ether sulfuric stream in operative medicine".

1847 - N.I. Pirogov performed the first ether endotracheal narcosis in an experiment. The ether streams were delivered through a cut made in the windpipe of the dog.

1847 ( 22nd March) - N.I. Pirogov experimentally injected an ether into an artery.

1847 ( June) - N.I. Pirogov applied an ether narcosis in labour.

1847 ( 1st April) - N.I. Pirogov made a report to Sanct-Petersburg medical society on rectal method of ether narcosis.

1847 ( 30th November) - N.I. Pirogov tested first chloroform narcosis in Russia.

1848 ( 4th April) - L.S. Sevruc applied inhaling narcosis of benzine stream.

1848 ( 10th April) - F.I. Inozemtsev under inhalation anesthesia of benzine stream removed the stone from urinary bladder.

1876 - D. Molov published first report on premedication.

1881 - S.K Klikovich ( assistant of S.P.Botkin - famous Russian physician) effectively treated angina pectoris pain by short inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen.

1884 - I.N. Katsaurov and Zaharievskiy were the first in Russia who performed ophthalmological operations under topical anesthesia.

1884 - Ophthalmologist I.N. Katsaurov applied local cocaine anesthesia.

1886 ( 1st September) - L.F. Lenevich performed a resection of maxilla under chloroform anesthesia.

1886 - A.I. Lucashevich started to operate digits under conduction cocaine anesthesia.

1887 - A.A. Bobrov published report on treatment of severe complications of chloroform narcosis. The author recommended to treat cardiac insufficiency by infusions of saline.

1887 - P.I. Djakov wrote a report on the importance of bicarbonate solution infusions at chloroform narcosis.

1899 ( 11th May) - J.B. Zeldovich performed the first spinal anesthesia in a woman 59 years old with cancer of the foot.

1899 - J.B. Zeldovich published his initial report in German on the usage of spinal anesthesia in the clinic.

1900 - J.B. Zeldovich published the same report on the clinical application of spinal anesthesia in Russian.

1902 - A.P. Saveliev published a monograph on chloroform narcosis that he started to practice since 1900.

1902 - N.P. Kravkov in an experiment performed hedonal-chloroform narcosis.

1903 - N.P. Kravkov successfully performed the first hedonal anesthesia in the clinic.

1903 - B.N. Choltsov made an initial report on the usage of caudal anesthesia in the treatment of various diseases of the uro-genital tract.

1905 - V.L. Pocotilo - applied veronal-chloroform narcosis.

1909 - N.P. Kravkov, S.P. Fedorov and A.P. Eremich developed and demonstrated the first hedonal narcosis in the clinic of Prof. S.P. Fedorov of Sanct-Petersburg military medical academy.

1912 - V.F. Voino-Jasenetskiy proposed to block n. ischiadicus at the place of its exit from the pelvic cavity.

1912 - D. Batalin performed the first endotracheal ether-chloroform narcosis.

1912 ( 15th January) - Publication of an initial report on successful resuscitation of a patient of 21 years old with tetraparesis of extremities , paralysis of n. facialis , transient attacks of failure of respiration and apnea. For a period of 17 days the patient got non-stop artificial ventilation by changing residents. Actually it was the first unique and well documented case of long respiratory resuscitation.

1912 - A F. Berdjaiev published a monograph on " Local Anesthesia". It was the first in Russia on local anesthesia.

1913 - N.I. Bereznegovskiy proposed veronal - derivative of barbituric acid for barbiturate narcosis.

1913 - F.A. Andreev successfully resuscitated a dog in 5-10 minutes after death by injection in a. carotis saline solution combined with adrenaline.

1915 - V.F. Voino-Jasetskiy published a classic monograph " Regional Anesthesia" , where he summarized many years of experience of its application.

1924 - S.S. Briuhonenko and S.I. Chuchalin created the first model in the world of an heart-lung machine , which the authors named "autozhector" .

1926 - S.S. Briuhonenko and S.I. Chechulin successfully used " autozhector" to support life in an isolated head of the dog.

1925 - A.A. Vishnevskiy developed a new technique of local anesthesia which he named a "method of crawling infiltrate".

1929 - Vishnevskiy’s method of local anesthesia by 0.25% novocain ( trade mark for preparations of procaine) became a basic method of local anesthesia in the USSR.

1932 - A.A. Vishnevskiy published his fundamental work "Local Anesthesia by Method of crawling Infiltrate". It was a fundamental achievement of its time and is still regarded as a classic literature on local anesthesia.

According to Vishnevskiy’s data (1970) near 80% of all surgical operations in wounded soldiers at the period of the Great Patriotic war from 1941 till 1945 were performed under local anesthesia by the method of "crawling infiltrate".

1933 - B.N. Holtsov was a pioneer in the use of epidural anesthesia in the USSR .

1938 - I.I. Feigel and J.S.Rabinivich were the first who used epidural analgesia in labour.

1939 - P.M. Starkov performed the first surgical operation under cyclopropane narcosis.

1946 - S.B. Fraiman performed the first local intraosseouse anesthesia

1948 ( January) - S.M.Grigorev and M.N. Anichkov published an article on " Intratracheal Narcosis". It was the first printed report on the use of intratracheal narcosis with muscle relaxants.

1954 - V.A. Negovskiy edited a monograph on "Pathophysiology and Therapy of Agony and clinical Death".

1956 - For the first time in the Military medical Academy ( Leningrad) was formed a training course which its primary goal was to create a new specialist - an Anesthesiologist.

1957 - S.M. Grigoriev and M.N. Anichkov edited a monograph on "Curare and curare-like drugs in Surgery".

1957 - A.A. Vishnevskiy performed the first successful open-heart operation with cardiopulmonary bypass.

1958 ( 8th October) - A.Z. Manevich, A.M. Mylanian and V.A.Michelson ( Clinic of Prof. I.S. Zhorov) reported on the first use of ftorotan in the USSR. The effects of ftorotan inhalation was preliminary studied on two doctors from the same clinic.

1958 ( December) - V.L. Vanevskiy and T.G.Ershova used viadril narcosis.

1958 - A.A. Vishnevskiy for the first time in the USSR performed a successful open-heart operation under hypothermia.

1959 - V.P. Smolnikov used inhalation anesthesia by combined mixture of gases - cyclopropane , nitrous oxide and oxygen.

1959 - A.D. Paschenko, V.L.Vanevskiy and T.G. Ershova made clinical trials of somnevrin - a Russian sleeping intravenous drug ( analog to the foreign SCTZ).

1960 - B.V. Petrovskiy and S.N. Efuni applied nitrous oxide/oxygen narcosis as a method of treatment for postoperative pain.

1961 - USSR started the serial production of mechanical ventilation machines.

1961 - First journal on anesthesia problems - "Experimental Surgery and Anesthesiology".

1962 (1st March) - V.M. Vinogradov, P.K. Diachenko and V.V. Timofiev developed methods of "ganglion blockade in the absence of hypotension". The authors combined ganglioplegic drugs like hexamethonium or pentamethonium with vasopressors such as mezaton.

1962 ( 5th April) - L.N. Buchidze and V.P. Smolnikov performed xenon anesthesia in man.

1965 - A.K. Rovina ( Clinic of Prof. E.N. Meshalkin) was the first who performed trilene narcosis in the open-heart operation.

1966 (21st January) - Society of Anesthesiologists-Reanimatologists was formed in the USSR.

1984 - V.P. Raievskiy, V.V. Schedrienok and S.Y. Tjurin proposed an endolymphatic injection of a combination of analgesics and droperidol as a method of treatment of postoperative pain syndrome.

Constantine Zhidkov, MD